How to get into medical school. Medical school requirements

What medical school requirements and prerequisites do you need?

Discover medical school requirements and medical school prerequisites, which scholarly and extracurricular activities you need, and how to fulfill your premed requirements while standing out in the 2024-2025 medical school application process.

While official medical school requirements for every medical school are listed in the Medical School Admissions Requirements, there are common scholarly and extracurricular activities that medical school admissions committees want to see — discover what those medical school “requirements” are in this article.

Because the study of medicine requires a fundamental understanding of the sciences and mathematics. Therefore, medical school requirements are focused primarily on biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics. However, many medical schools also want to see that you have taken math and English.

Medical school admissions committees also need to be convinced that you understand what it means to practice medicine, work with people from different backgrounds, and be an effective member of a team among other attributes.

By reading this article, you will understand the academic, scholarly, and extracurricular medical school requirements so you will be well-positioned when you apply to medical school.

And, believe it or not, you can actually enjoy the process because it is that interesting and fun. Yes. FUN!

College Requirements

To be eligible for a medical degree in the United States, you must have earned an undergraduate college degree before you start medical school. Many students ask if the undergraduate college status or prestige matter when it comes to medical school admissions. There is no clear “yes” or “no” answer to this question.

Some undergraduate colleges are especially prestigious or notoriously difficult and medical schools might consider this when evaluating a student’s GPA. In the same way, if a student attends a college that is considered easy, the GPA will be considered within that context.

For example, let’s say Student A went to a very prestigious college which is notorious for grade deflation and gives out very few As. She has a GPA of 3.45 with an upward trend. Now, let’s say student B went to a less prestigious college and earned a 4.0 GPA. Student A, depending on other factors such as the MCAT score and activities, might be considered a more competitive applicant than Student B who went to a much less rigorous undergraduate college.

The MCAT is really the great equalizer in this process. So, if Student A and Student B both earned a great MCAT, let’s say a 523, they would both be equally competitive assuming all other factors were equal.

Many students attend less competitive colleges for good reason and medical schools know this! There are also many prestigious college honors programs that medical school admissions committees consider quite impressive. A high GPA earned at ANY college is impressive especially if it’s matched strong course rigor and a high MCAT score.

Equally important to understand is that attending an “elite” college will not be your ticket to medical school. In fact, sometimes medical schools seem to expect more from student who attend elite colleges. This is anecdotal information based on our work with students in the most recent application season. 

The bottom line? You can get into medical school from any undergraduate institution as long as you do well academically and take advantage of the opportunities available to you.

Premedical Course Requirements

Medical school prerequisites may vary from med school to med school. However, the vast majority of medical schools have the following prerequisites:

  • Biology with lab (two semester sequence or three quarter sequence)
  • General chemistry with lab (two semester sequence or two quarter sequence)
  • Organic chemistry with lab (two semester sequence or two quarter sequence)
  • Physics with lab (two semester sequence or three quarter sequence)

Some medical schools also require the following prerequisites:

  • Mathematics: Calculus or statistics or college mathematics (two semesters or three quarters). About 60 medical schools require math.
  • Biochemistry (one semester or two/three quarters – depends on the school). About 60 medical schools require biochemistry. This number will likely increase every year.
  • English (two semesters or three quarters)
  • Statistics. About 20 medical schools require statistics.
  • Social sciences (psychology, sociology, two semesters)
  • Genetics 

Keep in mind that many medical schools will not accept AP credit to satisfy requirements.

Medical School Prerequisites: What Must You Take?

To be safe, we recommend taking all of the coursework listed above. Keep in mind that all courses must be taken before you matriculate to medical school rather than before you actually apply.

In addition to the courses listed above, we recommend students take upper level science classes in any discipline.

Since medical school prerequisites differ, it is important to review each medical school’s required courses before you apply. We recommend taking all required courses at a four year university in the United States or a community college if this was part of your education path.

For the most up to date listing for specific medical school’s requirements, refer to this document from the Association of American Medical Colleges.

What is “competency-based” admissions?

More medical schools are moving towards “competency-based” admissions meaning those schools don’t require specific prerequisite, but, prefer to see competency in certain disciplines including biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, and the humanities.

However, until all medical schools move towards competency-based admissions, we suggest taking all of the traditional medical school prerequisites.

Will medical schools accept advanced placement (AP) credit?

Many students who take AP classes in high school “place out” of some required prerequisites in college. Not all medical schools will accept this AP credit however many will.

Therefore, is important to check with individual medical schools regarding specific requirements. I suggest that students seek out this information before starting their freshman year. I have worked with clients who placed out of biology and took chemistry instead. Not only did this make their college course load demanding as took upper level science classes from the start of college, but, some medical schools would not accept the AP biology credit.

To find out definitively what each medical school requires, refer to Medical School Admissions Requirements updated annually by the Association of American Medical Colleges.

Do medical schools accept community college classes and credits?

The majority of medical schools will accept community college credits. We advise students check the MSAR for specific requirements from each medical school. Medical school admissions committees understand there are many reasons students enroll in community college classes and these choices will be viewed within the context of your entire application.

Medical School Requirements and Staying Organized

Medical school requirements can seem daunting and you may feel overwhelmed thinking about everything you need to do and accomplish to be a competitive medical school applicant.

The good news? If you stay organized, don’t rush to accomplish everything too quickly, and work hard, you can (and will) get it all done! I did it (years ago) and thousands of our students have as well.

Having a medical school timeline based on whether or not you plan on taking a gap year (or two) will help you to keep on track and get all of the prerequisite courses you need.

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Medical School Major Requirement

Medical school applicants can select any premed major!

Applicants often ask me what major “looks good” on an application. My response is always “the one that interests you the most.” Double majoring or earning a minor does not improve one’s candidacy, overall.

Students can major in non-science disciplines. In fact, medical schools are always seeking applicants who are intellectually curious and diverse; they don’t want an entire class of biology and chemistry majors.

Regardless of your major, take upper division science classes to prove that you can perform well in them. The bottom line is you can major in any discipline or disciplines you want as a premedical student.

However, since your GPA matters so much in medical school admissions, ideally you should try to major in the discipline where you can earn the highest GPA.

For example, a Spanish major with a 3.9 overall GPA and a 3.7 BCPM GPA, will be just as competitive as a Biology major with same stats assuming the Spanish major enrolled in upper level science courses.

By the same token, an Applied Math major with a 3.5 overall GPA and 3.4 BCPM GPA might not be as competitive as the Spanish major with higher metrics.

Interestingly, in the most recent data available, humanities majors have the highest acceptance rates to medical school with more than 50% matriculating!

RELATED ARTICLE: The Best Premed Major for Medical School Admissions (2023-2024)

The Ultimate Guide Getting into Medical School ebook

Medical School GPA Requirements

The majority of medical schools will not disclose minimum GPA requirements. The average GPA for all medical school matriculants in 2022-2023 was 3.75 overall and a 3.68 BCPM at MD-granting schools in the U.S.

Many students ask us what GPA is “good enough” to get into medical school and this is a tough question to answer. Some medical schools screen applications based on minimum GPA requirements.

Obviously, the higher your GPA, the better. However, the general ballpark cut-off that medical schools use is an overall GPA of 3.5.

That said, schools also pay attention to grade trends. Many students do poorly early in college simply because they are not prepared for the academic course load and don’t have the maturity and time management and study skills to do well.

If you have an upward grade trend, medical schools may be willing to forgive a poor performance early in college. But, for the really competitive schools, academic excellence throughout college is essential.

How can you figure out if your GPA is competitive for a given medical school? We suggest reviewing the MSAR data and ensuring your GPA is in the middle 50th percentile or higher for the schools in which you are most interested.

Average GPAs for accepted students varies from medical school to medical school. The overall average GPA for students accepted to allopathic medical schools always hovers around 3.7.

Medical School MCAT Score Requirement

As mentioned earlier, MCAT scores allow medical schools to compare applicants from different undergraduate colleges.

The higher you score on the MCAT® the better. A composite score of 511 on the MCAT® is generally considered the score needed to gain admission to allopathic medical schools in the United States.

If you are applying to DO (osteopathic) medical schools, your MCAT does not need to be as high; an MCAT of 506 is competitive for osteopathic medical schools.

The maximum score a student can earn on the MCAT is 528. An outstanding MCAT score is 518 or above.

The overall average MCAT score for matriculants to allopathic medical schools in the United States has been steadily increasing:

  • 511.2 in 2018/2019
  • 511.5 in 2019/2020
  • 511.5 in 2021/2201
  • 511.9 in 2021/2022
  • 511.9 in 2022/2023

The most recent data shows an average MCAT score of 511.9 for students accepted to allopathic medical school with the following breakdown: 127.9 CPBS, 127 CARS, 128.2 BBLS, and 128.9 PSBB.

Most college students take the MCAT the summer after junior or senior year. When planning on your MCAT date, keep in mind that most medical schools accept scores that are up to two or three years old.

RELATED ARTICLE: What MCAT Score Do You Need to Get Into Medical School (2023-2024)?

Be sure to carefully plan your medical school admissions timeline when deciding when to take the MCAT.

Medical School Extracurricular Requirements

When seeking out experiences, keep in mind what medical school admissions committees want to see in your candidacy:

  • Commitment to medicine and scientific inquiry
  • Experience working with diverse populations
  • A commitment to advocacy and social justice
  • Commitment to altruistic endeavors
  • Intellectual curiosity
  • Exposure to clinical medicine
  • Excellent intra and interpersonal skills

See Medical School Core Competencies


Most medical schools, even those that are not major academic medical centers, want applicants to have research experience.

Most students engage in basic science research (either for credit, during the summer, or for employment) or clinical research.

However, research in other disciplines will also allow you to learn how to think critically, analyze data, evaluate the literature, solve problems, and ask and then answer a question through experimentation.

If you can’t find a basic science or clinical research experience, consider research in another discipline of interest – psychology, art history, anthropology – or whatever else piques your curiosity.

What you learn through research in any discipline can be applied to future research endeavors and help you to practice evidence based medicine. You will also be able to evaluate current studies, which will be necessary throughout your medical education, training, and career.

Medical schools are placing more and more value on the importance of scientific inquiry, analytical skills, and the ability to apply knowledge practically. Therefore, significant research experience will be more, and not less, important in coming years.

Social Justice and Advocacy Work (KEY FOR 2024-2025)

We saw medical schools, in 2022/2023, start to value work in social justice or advocacy. What does this mean exactly? We suggest that students be involved in work that shows an interest in combating inequities that exist in our society whether that be health care inequities, educational inequities, environmental inequities, or anything else.

Understanding the social determinants of health is also essential in today’s climate.

Volunteering and Community Service

Lending your services to help others in need is always a worthwhile endeavor.

Medical schools are seeking people who are compassionate, caring, and empathetic. Demonstrating these traits through community service or volunteer work is important. Medical schools also seek applicants who want to help others in need, including the underserved.

Physicians also play significant roles in their communities. Therefore, medical schools value students who demonstrate a commitment to serve their communities.

Service work can be performed in medical and non-medical settings, and both are considered desirable. As mentioned above, medical schools value volunteering in a free clinic, nursing home, hospital, or hospice. Spending time in non-clinical settings, such as a soup kitchen, a tutoring program, or helping to build homes for those who are less fortunate, also demonstrates a commitment to serve.

Shadowing/Exposure to Clinical Medicine

All medical schools want to see that you have varied clinical exposure.

This can take the form of doctor shadowing, volunteering in a free clinic, or working abroad in some capacity. Some applicants have difficulty getting accepted to medical school because they have no exposure to patient care.

We have found that in recent years medical schools are valuing hands-on clinical experience more rather than passive experiences such as shadowing. Even if you aren’t taking a gap year, consider scribing, working as an EMT or as a certified nursing assistant. Hands-on clinical experience is valued much more highly than passive experience such as shadowing.

If you have never set foot in a doctor’s office or a hospital it is tough to convince someone that you want to be a doctor. Admissions committees want to be sure that you understand what it means to practice medicine in a variety of settings.

I often suggest that students seek out shadowing experiences in emergency departments (EDs). I don’t this because I am an emergency physician but because emergency departments are open 24/7, are always busy, and have a variety of patients with varied clinical presentations. The key is to shadow a spectrum of specialists in different settings.

Other Extracurricular Activities

To show you are an interesting, curious and engaged person, you should ideally demonstrate other passions in the admissions process.

Medical schools want to have a group of diverse medical students so having other passions can be appealing.

Medical School Letter of Recommendation Requirements

Each medical school’s official letter of recommendation requirements vary. However, we suggest asking for letters from the following people to make the strongest letter portfolio

  • Medical school committee letter. If your school offers a committee letter, include that in your profile
  • Science Professors: Have at least one letter from a science professor. However, we recommend two science letters.
  • Math Professors: If you have only one science letter, be sure to also receive at least one math letter.
  • Liberal Arts Professor: Ideally, your letter profile should include one liberal arts professor.
  • Research Principal Investigator (PI): If you did research, try to get a letter from your PI.
  • Shadowing or Community Service Letter: These letters serve mostly as character reference letters, but, can add to your overall profile.

How do you complete the medical school application?

Most medical schools extend interviews on a rolling basis so it is extremely important to submit your medical school application as close to the application opening date as possible.

Ideally you should start working on your personal statement and work and activities entries by April.

All three application systems open in early May. AMCAS can be submitted in very late May/early June. Also be aware that AMCAS won’t verify your application until it receives all documentation. Application processing and verification can take up to six weeks. But, if you submit early, this processing often takes much less time.

The AMCAS application opens in early May. At that time you can enter all of your application information, request transcripts, and have letters of reference sent to AMCAS.

Submitting the earliest applications possible is of the utmost importance.

RELATED ARTICLE: Best Medical School Application Timeline (2023 -2024)

Final thoughts

We realize that all for the medical school requirements you need to be competitive are daunting. So, stay organized, take it one day at a time, and it will all get done! If you need support along the way, we are here to help you.

Frequently asked questions

Are paid volunteer clinical trips worthwhile?

We discourage applicants from paying for clinical experience and “voluntourism” is something that was in vogue years ago. Unless you have a connection to the foreign country at which you are doing work, this will not be viewed favorably by admissions committees and could be interpreted as gratuitous and privileged. 

What about paid shadowing programs like the Atlantis fellowship?

We discourage applicants from paying for shadowing or observerships such as the Atlantis study abroad fellowship unless you are looking for a work vacation and have extra cash on hand. Atlantis “fellowships” start at $4,800 according to their website. Programs such as Atlantis are not highly respected by admissions committees and you are better of shadowing doctors in your community and learning about challenges facing people in the United States.

How many volunteering hours do I need for medical school?

We discourage applicants from trying to accumulate hours for the sake of your medical school candidacy. How many hours you have often depends on the value of an experience and the opportunity you have to make an impact through that experience. Once an experience becomes boring or if the experience dead ends, meaning that you cannot find anyway to learn something valuable from it or contribute in a meaningful way, it’s time to consider dropping the activity. MedEdits student who have been accepted to medical have had between 30 – 1000 hours of volunteer experience.

What is the best major for medical school?

As we have mentioned in this article, there is no “best major” for medical school. You should major in what interests you most. That said, if you major in a non science, be sure you take upper level science classes in additional to traditional prerequisites to show you can do well and that you have a solid foundation for medical school. Medical school admissions committees want to see mastery in whatever discipline you are interested in. Some students see college as the last opportunity to study a non-science discipline in depth and take advantage of that opportunity. Medical schools, which value intellectual curiosity, appreciate this. Based on the data, no specific major will increase your chances of medical school admission.

MedEdits Medical Admissions Founder and Chairwoman, Jessica Freedman, MD
JESSICA FREEDMAN, M.D., is a former faculty member and admissions committee member at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. She is the founder and chair of MedEdits Medical Admissions and author of the MedEdits Guide to Medical Admissions and The Medical School Interview which you can find on Amazon. Follow Dr. Freedman and MedEdits on Instagram,  Facebook and YouTube.
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